Author Archive


Speeding Things Up in the Cloud with NGINX

Monday, March 26th, 2012 by

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It’s been no secret to us in the high-performance, web server in-crowd that NGINX (pronounced “engine-x”) has been taking the webhosting world by storm for the last several years; *sites like WordPress, Facebook, Hulu, Github, SourceForge and more have been offloading some or many functions onto NGINX. I had originally been exposed to NGINX whilst researching for a higher-performance web server that was 64-bit friendlier than Apache, and that was did not use single threads. Apache has an enormous memory footprint on 64-bit systems and is a single-threaded application.

NGINX is a very flexible HTTP server that can also serve as a reverse proxy, load balancer, caching server, and an IMAP/POP3 proxy. Unlike Apache, however, the configuration is a little bit more involved and can be a big change for Apache loyalists.

In this is example, NGINX will be configured as a full webserver with PHP support. My goal when conjuring this project was to make a pre-configured Community GSI on the GoGrid Exchange with as little modification as possible to ensure a “pure” environment. If you’re anything like me, you might tremble at the thought of even using a typical, pre-configured server with a LAMP stack; I personally like setting things up from scratch, but there’ve been plenty of situations where I would’ve preferred a pre-configured solution. Hopefully I can capture the essence of my intentions.

One thing I should note before I get started is that NGINX does not have a module for PHP the way Apache does; PHP must be run using the FastCGI methodology. Much like the way you would pass requests to a Java container or reverse proxy, so must we for PHP.

The first thing I should mention is that I’m using the EPEL and IUS repositories to for the latest versions of NGINX and PHP-FPM. IUS is the official repository for RHEL/CentOS as referenced by Using these 2 repositories will not alter any existing packages on your system.

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How To Optimize Your Database Backups and Text File Compression with pbzip2 and pigz

Thursday, February 9th, 2012 by

Recently, GoGrid was examining performance enhancements on several internal processes; among these enhancements was switching from standard gzip to “pigz”. Since I had never heard of this “pigz”, I was intrigued by this supposed “parallel” implementation of gzip; meaning it uses all available CPU’s/cores unlike gzip. This prompted me to ask, “I wonder if there is a parallel implementation of bzip2 as well”, and there began my endeavor.

pigz and pbzip2 are multi-threaded (SMP) implementations of their respective idol file compressors. They are both actively maintained and are fully compatible with all current bzip2 and gzip archives.

If you’re like me, you might’ve stayed away from using gzip or bzip2 due to the single-threaded aspect. If I try to compress a, let’s say, 2GB file, the system becomes rather sluggish; the reason being is that the “compression tool of choice” uses almost all of 1 core of today’s multi-core, multi-CPU systems and creates an uneven load between the cores, causing the CPU to operate very inefficiently.

In this example I have a .tar file with several databases in it, which totals 1.3GB. The system in question is a GoGrid dedicated server with 8 cores. The server’s load is around 1 and is a production database server.

Using bzip2, the file took approximately 6 minutes and 30 seconds to compress. Yikes!


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